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Figurate Number Pyramid Puzzle (垛積金塔)
The pile-up puzzle is a 3D puzzle categorized as a block puzzle game. It was developed based on the principle of figurate numbers in ancient China, which was a very important branch of mathematics in the Song and Yuan dynasties.
 The idea behind this game is to “gather small pieces to form a big figure”. Players need to form a complete 3D figure by piling up several identical or non-identical components. Players begin with a completed configuration which they then break down and attempt to reassemble into the original shape. Sometimes it requires an “epiphany” to put the components back into the starting formation.          
The pyramid puzzle is the most classic pile-up puzzle. It can be formed by piling up two, three, or four pieces. There is also a variation in which small pieces form several sticks, and the sticks are assembled to form a complete pyramid. The pyramid puzzle is a challenging and thought-provoking game.  
 The principle of arithmetic progression applies to all variations of the pyramid puzzle. By playing this game, players become acquainted with difficult geometric relations. The wide variety of combinations ensures new challenges in each sitting.

National Digital Archives Program—UEPlay Digital Museum - Intellectual Games, Department of Plastic Design (Graduate Program of Toy and Game Design), National Taipei University of Education