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Routine Memorial (t'i-pên) A memorial from the Provincial Governor of Shanhsi, reporting that the addition of honorary titles to the Empress Dowager would be announced to the public (題本 署山西巡撫巴延三題報奉到加上皇太后徽號恩詔日期 )

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As in the Ming, central and local officials in the Ch'ing used the t'i-pên to submit reports concerning administrative activities. Attached at the end of most t'i-pên was a slip of paper, called t'ieh-huang, which summarized the contents. Each t'i-pên was presented to the emperor for "endorsement" (p'i-hung) with one or several proposals (p'iao-ni) written on a slip or several slips of paper for imperial selection.




Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica

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